Now on the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, saying, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink. “He who believes in Me, as the Scripture said, ‘From his innermost being will flow rivers of living water.'” But this He spoke of the Spirit, whom those who believed in Him were to receive; for the Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.
– John 7:37-39, NAU
John 7:37-39 is one of the central passages in the author’s doctrine of the Spirit. It touches on the grand issues that determine what we believe about the Spirit. This passage is very much interrelated with John 4:7-15. These passages should be studied together.
John’s purpose in writing his gospel was to encourage people (John 20:31) to believe in Jesus and to receive eternal life. His comments on the Spirit fit with this overall purpose. In john 6:63, for example, he writes that “‘It is the Spirit who gives life.'”
Jesus issues an invitation to the thirsty. He invites them to come and drink. Or, as another approach puts it, He invites the thirsty to come and the believers to drink. The result is that those who seek eternal life are invited to believe in Jesus and to receive what He offers.
Scholars debate the meaning of verse 38b. Jesus said, “From his innermost being shall flow rivers of living water.” Does “his innermost being” refer to Christ Himself or to the believer? Many hold to the Christological view. Many others, however, support the view that “his” refers to the believer. The believer becomes a source of living water. Either way, Jesus gives and the believer receives the Spirit.
The invitation of Jesus applied immediately. In some sense the Spirit worked in the lives of those who believed. However, after the glorification of Jesus, His work would be much greater. The Spirit works powerfully in His life-giving role.
As verse 37a indicates, the setting for these verses was the Feast of Tabernacles which was called the great feast. This feast took place about six months after the Passover. It was on the “last day” of feast that Jesus spoke these words. Whether or not this was the seventh or eighth day is debated.
Many commentators believe that a daily libation in the Temple lies in the background of what Jesus says. The libation was not made on the eighth day, but some hold that it was the omission of this ceremony on this day that inspired Jesus to say what He did. Godet (pp. 75-76), who believes that Jesus spoke on the eighth day, describes what took place each day for seven days:
The ceremony commemorated a great miracle in the desert. When they were camped at Rephidim, there was no water to drink. God said to Moses (Exodus 17:6), “‘Behold I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink.'” The people quenched their thirst from the water that poured forth from the rock. Thus, the miracle lies in the background of the ceremony.
The miracle was important to the Old Testament prophets and the New Testament church. Wescott (p. 123) says, “The water brought from the rock supplied an image of future blessing to the prophets: Ezek. xlvii. 1, 12; Joel iii. 18.” With regard to New Testament times, Barclay (p. 265) states: “The Christian always identified Jesus with the rock which gave the Israelites water in the wilderness (Exodus 17:6).”
Jesus no doubt had in mind the miracle in the wilderness, the ceremony in the Feast of Tabernacles, and the pronouncements of the prophets when He spoke. Certainly, His comments fit very well with the setting of the Feast. The subsequent view of the Church (I Corinthains 10:4) also harmonizes.
There are many issues involved in interpreting John 7:37-39. According to Burge (p. 89), “Three questions dominate this exegetical discussion: (1) punctuation; (2) the antecedent of autou (his); and (3) the source of the scripture citation.” (Transliteration Mine) However, Fee (p. 3) maintains that a different question should frame the exegetical discussion. He begins with verse 39 and asks: To whom did the author inend to attribute verse 38? An answer to this question will have a bearing on the other issues.
We will discuss these issues as we encounter them, but it will be helpful here to outline the nature of the punctuation discussion. This issue has to do with whether “He who believes in Me” (verse 38a) belongs with verse 37 or with verse 38. There are two main approaches: the first approach places verse 38a with the rest of verse 38; the second places verse 38a with verse 37.
If any man is thirsty,
Let him come to Me and drink.
He who believes in Me,
As the Scripture said, “From his innermost being shall flow rivers of living water.”
If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me;
Whoever believes in Me, let him drink.
(Or, Let him drink, whoever believes in Me.)
As the Scripture said, “From his innermost being shall flow rivers of living water.”
After giving the setting (verse 37a), John cites the invitation Jesus made to His audience. He addressed those who may be spiritually thirsty and issued an invitation (compare John 4:10). As Morris (p. 422) states, “There is the implication that the thirsty soul will find supplied in Him [Jesus] that need which could not be supplied elsewhere.” Several points should be considered.
First, Very clearly, Jesus makes a twofold invitation; He invites the people to believe in Him and to receive what He offers. What He offers will quench their thirst. The precise meaning of the terms “come” and “drink” depends to some extent on punctuation. However, under either approach, the people are to believe and receive.
One, using Approach One, Jesus said, “‘If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink.'” Then He begins verse 38 with “He that believes in Me.” Morris states (p. 423): “to come to Jesus and drink is to believe. There is no difference in meaning.” Similarly Lenski (p. 575) writes: “Coming and drinking are merely two sides of one action, namely, believing in Jesus.”
Under this approach, the term “drink” can refer to both believing and receiving. Concerning believing, more than mental assent is involved. The believer appropriates or receives what Jesus gives. In John 6:54 Jesus said, “‘He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life.'” Here the term “drink” obviously refers to believing. Earlier, in John 4:14, Jesus used the term “drink” concerning water–something He would give to His hearers. Thus, to drink can refer to believing and to receiving.
Two, the same result is achieved by Approach Two. Using this approach, Jesus said, “‘If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me; Whoever believes in Me, let him drink.'” Many hold that the two lines are parallel. In this case the parallel lines are complementary, but not exactly synonymous. The one who is thirsty is invited to come, meaning that he is encouraged to believe. Then, the one who believes is invited to drink. In other words, the one who believes is invited to receive. The end result is that Jesus invites the thirsty to believe and receive.
Second, Jesus gave an invitation to His hearers to drink. Under Approach One, the invitation is to the thirsty to drink. The emphasis is on drinking or believing in Jesus, but this extends to what Jesus gives. Under the Approach Two, the invitation to drink is to the believers. The emphasis is on drinking what Jesus gives, but believing is prerequisite to receiving.
Under both interpretations, water is the implied gift. Lenski maintains that (p. 575): “Water is not directly mentioned but is certainly implied in thirsting and in drinking.” Water is a flexible metaphor in both the Old Testament and New Testament.
With regard to Judaism, water could refer to either the Torah or the Spirit. Goppelt (p. 139) says, “Where the OT spoke of drinking water the Rabb. interpreted it allegorically of receiving the Spirit, and often of studying the Torah: the phrase ‘to drink of the water of a scholar’ is a common one for the student relationship.”
In John’s writings, God, Jesus, the Word, and the Spirit are all involved in giving life to the believer. Jesus offered living water (John 4:10), to the woman of Samaria. This gift would become (John 10:14) “a well of living water springing up to eternal life.” In verse 37 John does not specifically mention the Spirit, but even before the glorificaton of Jesus, the Spirit was at work. Thus, in my view, the gift of water is, or at least includes, the Spirit.
Third, the terms “come,” “drink,” and “believes” represent initial, ongoing, and continuous faith in Christ and reception of His gifts. The terms “come” and “drink” (verse 37) are present imperatives, and “believes” (verse 38a) is the NAU translation of a present participle.
Some writers hold that come and drink happen once only. For example, Lenski gives (p. 575) the two present imperatives, come and drink, the force of the aorist tense. He calls them aoristic presents. According to Him (p. 575), “We are to come and to drink once only then we shall never thirst again. Life, once received, lives on and on; we need not receive it over and over again.” It should be said, however, that the aorist tense by itself does not preclude additional drinking. Moreover, we need not regard the two present imperatives as aoristic.
In spite of Lenski’s views about the aoristic force of come and drink, Lenski (p.576) acknowledges that “believes” in verse 38a “characterizes the person as one who continues trusting in Jesus.” Even here, however, Dunn (p. 180) does not yield. He holds that the action described is “the initial commitment of faith.”
Another view is expressed by Stott (pp. 53-54): “Now the verbs (thirsting, coming, drinking, believing) are all in the present tense. So we are not only to come to Jesus once, in penitence and faith, but also thereafter to keep coming and to keep drinking, because we keep thirsting.” We might add that what Jesus gives, we keep receiving.
Fourth, in John 4:14 Jesus says that those who drink the water that He shall give, shall never thirst. How can the idea of repeated drinking be reconciled with this? According to Wescott (p. 70), thirst should be interpreted “in the sense of feeling the pain or an unsatisfied want, Rev. vii. 16. But the divine life and the divine wisdom bring no satiety, Ecclus. xxiv. 21.” In other words we still want to enhance our relationship with Christ and continue to drink.
Fifth, the invitation Jesus gave applied immediately in some sense. As we have said, the verbs in verses 37b-38a are in the present tense. As He spoke, some people were thirsty. Jesus invited them to come and to drink. Also, there would be people in the future who would be thirsty. Whenever they are thirsty, they should come and drink.
Later on, when Jesus would be glorified, the full extent of the offer would be realized. However, Old Testament spiritual experience, at least, was possible immediately. With Jesus present an even greater understanding was possible. John presents a dispensational divide in verse 39, but this does not preclude prior applications of the life giving ministry of Jesus and the Spirit.
His Innermost Being
According to Goppelt (p. 326), verse 38 is an “obscure” passage. The main issue with regard to this verse is whether “his” in the phrase “his innermost being” refers to Christ, to the believer, or to both. The issue of punctuation, as well as other issues, are very much involved in arriving at the proposed solutions.
First, some hold to the Christological view or the Western view. According to Burge (p. 89), the view of the Western church was that the rivers of living water flow out of Jesus. This view was supported by Justin, Hippolytus, Tertullian, and Irenaeus.
Advocates of this view hold that the pronoun “his” refers to Christ. Thus, the rivers of living water flow out of the innermost being of Christ. Jesus is the giver of the Spirit. The believer receives the Spirit that He abundantly gives. Several points are characteristic of this view.
One, this view relies heavily on Approach One to punctuation. Using this punctuation, the antecedent of “his” in verse 38 actually is left open. The pronoun “his” could refer to Christ or the believer, but this punctuation is often used in support of the Christological view. If “his” refers to Christ, then the subject changes from the believer to Christ.
Two, in accordance with “as the Scripture said,” Old Testament Scriptures are called upon in support of this view. Morris (p. 424) says the followed are adduced: Exodus 17:6; Psalm 105:41; Ezekiel 47:1; and Joel 3:18. The Old Testament Scriptures are thought of as applying to Christ. In other words Jesus applies these passages to Himself.
Three, this view is fully in harmony with John’s writings. According to Hull (pp. 285-286), “In favor of this interpretation is 4:10, 14a, where Jesus offers to give living water; 7:39, where water=the Spirit that Jesus will later give (20:22); 19:34, where water flowed from the pierced side of Jesus; and Revelation 22:1, where ‘the river of the water of life’ flowed ‘from the throne of God and of the Lamb’ (Jesus).”
Second, many others hold to the Traditional view that “his” in verse 38 refers to the believer. According to Burge (p. 88), this is called the Eastern Interpretation and writers such as Origen, Athanasius, and the Greek fathers supported it.
The entirety of verse 38, as well as verse 37b, is attributed to Jesus. Jesus began speaking about “He who believes.” Then, with the subject suspended, He called upon Scripture to describe what will happen to the believer. Out of the believer’s heart will flow rivers of living water. The believer continues to enjoy the living water in His own life. Then, the living water flows out to others. We know, of course, that Christ is the ultimate source. Morris (p. 423 424) writes: “while it is true that the living water comes from Christ as the ultimate source, yet the believer is mediately a source to others.” Several points are relevant to this view.
One, advocates of this view normally hold to punctuation Approach Two, but it is possible under Approach One as well. The position that “his” refers to the believer is not entirely dependent on punctuation. According to Morris (p. 423): “However we punctuate, it does seem as though the ‘him’ is the same person as the preceding ‘he.’ We need strong reasons for taking it otherwise.”
Two, Old Testament Scriptures are adduced in support of this approach also. Many acknowledge the lack of Old Testament verses that refer to water flowing out of the believer. However, Morris (p.424) states:
Three, the Traditional view also is in harmony with John’s theology. For example, it harmonizes with the well of water in John 4:14 that springs up to eternal life. In John 14:17 Jesus refers to the Spirit of truth that “will be in you.” These passages do not explicitly refer to the water flowing out of the believer, but clearly the believer is enabled by the Spirit to be a witness (John 14:26; 20:22-23).
Third, another approach is possible. We are not compelled to choose between the Eastern and Western views. John often writes with some seemingly purposeful ambiguity. Or, to put this matter another way, he encompasses more than one truth in what he says. Both views represent well-established truth. Some of the same verses, such as Isaiah 58:11, are used to support both views.
We well may regard the citation in verse 38b as a composite reference to many Scriptures that state a general principle. The principle may apply to God, Jesus, or the believer. The pronoun “his” could have multiple antecedents. Therefore, we simply can accept both the Traditional and the Christological approaches.
After a full discussion of the views, Barclay (pp. 263-264) concludes: “Whether we take this picture as referring to Christ or to the man who accepts Christ, it means that from Christ there flows the strength and power and cleansing which alone give us life in the real sense of the term.” Certainly, Christ is the giver of the living water. Just as clearly, the believer receives the living water. The believer who witnesses faithfully shares the living water with others.
Rivers of Living Water
At this point we will focus on the “rivers of living water.” It flows “from” (or out of) “his” innermost being. As we have said, this can refer either to the innermost being of Christ, the believer, or both. Several comments related to this may be made.
First, when “his” refers to the believer, an additional question arises. Does the living water flow from within to the believer, outward to others, or both? In my view both the believer and others benefit from the flowing waters. John 7:38 calls to mind John 4:14. The emphasis of John 4:14 is on the benefit to the believer, but it does not preclude the outward flow. It may be that the emphasis of verse 38 is on the outward flow, but the benefit to the believer is understood. These are complementary passages.
Second, the term living water could be broadly interpreted, but in this context the term refers to the Holy Spirit. We might regard living water as anything that leads to eternal life. This could include the Word of God, spiritual life itself, Jesus, or the Holy Spirit. The same figure can refer both to life itself as well as to that which produces life. However, verse 39 explains that living water in this verse refers to the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is the one (John 6:63) who quickens and gives life. Thus, the living water in this context is especially the Spirit in His life-giving role. The Spirit is received by the believer and then the believer shares his experience with the world.
Some writers connect John 7:38 with empowerment for service. For example, Rea (p. 132), maintains that “This passage is the clearest reference in the Gospel of John to the promise of the Holy Spirit fulfilled in the Spirit baptism on the Day of Pentecost.” Although there may be a connection, the imagery is different. In John 7:38 the Spirit flows from within. On the Day of Pentecost the Holy Spirit was poured out (Acts 2:17) upon the disciples. Either way, the believers are inspired to minister to others.
John said (verse 39), “‘But this He spoke of the Spirit, whom those who believed in Him were to receive; for the Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.'” We will deal with each of the four clauses in this compound sentence below.
First, John says, “But this He spoke of the Spirit.” Up to this point, neither John nor Jesus has used the title “Spirit” in this passage. He uses the title now to explain and clarify what has been said before.
One, according to Arndt and Gingrich (p. 170 ) the Greek word de (but) connects one clause with another when it is felt there is a contrast between them. The contrast is often scarcely discernible. Sometimes it is just a connective without a contrast being intended. The word de can be translated with either “but” or “and.”
What Jesus says in verse 39 stands in contrast to verse 37. The gift of water is implied in verse 37. The living water of verse 38b is an advance over the implied gift of water in verse 37. This living water is identified as the Spirit that believers were to receive when Jesus is glorified. Whatever had been experienced of the Spirit before will now undergo transition. The dispensational divide is soon to be crossed.
Two, verse 39 explains what Jesus said in verse 38b. According to Fee (p.4) the words “But this He spoke” (touto de eipen) refer to verse 38 from “as” (kathos) the Scripture said on to the end of 38b. In support of this he cites the usage of these words in John 2:21; 6:6; 6:71; 12:33; 21:19; 11:51; and 12:6. He states (p. 4), “In each instance the formula refers specifically to a saying which immediately preceded it.” To me this suggests that verses 38b and 39 could be connected by “and.”
Given this, verses 38b-39 stand in contrast to verse 37. Even when the implied water of verse 37 is taken as the Spirit, the Spirit that those who believed were to receive is far greater. In my view this is the correct understanding of the first clause in this sentence.
Second, John says, “whom those who believed in Him were to receive.” Here, John does not use figurative language. He speaks of those who believed and those who were to receive the Spirit. To further understand this clause, we submit these comments:
One, the verb pisteusantes is an aorist participle. It may be translated “having believed” they were to receive the Spirit. John refers to all who already have believed. Jesus (verse 37) made an offer and obviously some accepted. The aorist participle, as some claim, does not limit believing to an initial moment. Those who believed kept on believing. Moreover, the principle applies to all who will believe in the future as well.
Two, faith in Christ is a prerequisite to receiving the Spirit. In the case of those who immediately believed in Jesus (verse 38a), they must wait until Jesus was glorified before they received the New Testament Spirit. After the glorification of Jesus, the principle still applied. This is sustained by Luke (Acts 11:17) and by Paul (Galatians 3:2 and 4:6). Faith in Jesus Christ, the central Person, is foundational to New Testament experience of the Spirit.
Three, the believers “were to receive” the Spirit. As verses 37b-38a indicate, we initially believe in Jesus and keep on believing. We continue to drink Him and what He gives. Now, in v. 39 Jesus is the implied giver of the Spirit. Those who believed as Jesus spoke were to receive, and later did receive, the Spirit. Those who in the future believe in Christ also will receive the Spirit.
All would agree that the verb “receive” can refer to the initial reception of the Spirit. The question now arises: Can continual or repeated appropriation be referred to by the verb receive? Jesus has already used coming, drinking, and believes (verses 37b-38a) in a continuous sense. When used of true faith in Christ, believing includes appropriation. It is not mere mental assent. We continually appropriate Christ and what He gives.
With regard to the Spirit, we have within us (John 4:14) a “well of water springing up to eternal life.” This is the Spirit giving life. If He continually gives life, it is reasonable for us to say that we continually receive life. The giver is inseparable from the gift. Thus we continually receive Him as well. We can say the same of the “rivers of living water” flowing out of our innermost being. We continue to receive the Spirit and share Him with others.
Third, John says, “for the Spirit was not yet given.” As we interpret this clause, we must keep in mind that the word “given” was not in the Greek text. Also, it is important to observe that the glorification of Jesus was the dispensational divide. We note the following points:
One, almost unanimously commentators agree that John does not refer to the existence of the Holy Spirit as a person. The Holy Spirit is God. He is eternal, without beginning or end. We must think, then, in terms of some dimension of the Spirit’s presence, personality, or activity. John only introduces this subject in verse 39. Subsequent passages will give us much more information.
Two, the glorification of Jesus had an impact on the Spirit. Both the personality of the Spirit and His relationship to Christ are included in this discussion. The very nature of the Triune God is involved.
Some scholars weigh in on the subject of changes in the personality, if not the personhood, of the Spirit. Much of their work focuses on the Spirit as He relates to the divine-human Son of God. The main line of thought is that the Spirit took on dimensions of the personality of the Incarnate Jesus.
We must be cautious not to take this line of thought too far. Swete (p. 293) wisely comments: “The Spirit is neither the Father nor the Son, although He is God.” Similarly, Thomas (p. 144) writes:
While maintaining this truth, we can make several points. We know that new names for the Spirit are introduced. Jesus, in John’s gospel calls the Spirit another Helper (John 14:26). The apostle Paul calls Him the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9), and Luke calls him the Spirit of Jesus (Acts 16:7). These names focus on the relationship between Jesus and the Spirit.
Obviously, the Spirit and Jesus always were closely related, but this relationship takes on new dimensions after the glorification. When Jesus is no longer physically present, the Spirit (John 14:16) will be “another Helper.” According to the Christological view of John 38b, the Spirit will flow from Christ’s innermost being. Jesus will send (John 15:26 and 16:7) the Spirit to the disciples.
When Jesus came to earth, He became the incarnate Son of God. He is both human and divine. We know that the Spirit represents the divine-human Son of God (John 16:13-14). Following the completion of Christ’s saving work, the Spirit could represent and apply that work to our hearts. Since the Spirit represents Jesus, He fully understands the mind and heart of the divine human Savior.
Three, the glorification of Jesus opened the way for the Spirit to do new things in the lives of believers. According to Ladd (p. 296), there is a new inwardness of the Spirit. In addition there is a new abundance of the Spirit. The Spirit is given abundantly by Christ and is received abundantly by the believer. There will be rivers of living water. Also, the believers experience new activities of the Spirit. Stibbs and Packer (pp. 28 29) write:
Fourth, John says, “because Jesus was not yet glorified.” The term glorified is interrelated with terms such as exalted, lifted up, ascended, and resurrected. Jesus applied the terms “glorified” and “lifted up” (John 12:23, 32) to his death. According to Lenski (pp. 862 and 877) both terms can refer to His ascension. Peter mentions (Acts 3:13, 1)] the resurrection of Christ in connection with glorification. However, Peter does not limit “glorification” to the resurrection. Lenski (p. 862) avers that with the word glorified, John “sums up everything the passion as something glorious, the exaltation following, and the future adoration by the hosts of believers the world over and in heaven.”
On the great day of the Feast of Tabernacles, Jesus invited the thirsty to believe in Him and to receive what He offers. Through the presence and work of the Spirit, those who believe will have eternal life.
Although the Spirit is not mentioned in verse 37, the life-giving work of the Spirit is surely present . Even before the glorification of Jesus, the Spirit worked in the lives of the believers. After the glorification, the Spirit’s presence and work would be far greater. Jesus likened the Spirit to streams of living water!
Theologians have debated for centuries whether the pronoun “his” in verse 38b refers to Christ or the believer. John may have stated a general principle that applies to both Christ and the believer. Both approaches are valid.
We know that Jesus gives the Spirit abundantly, that those who believe abundantly receive the Spirit, and that the Spirit flows abundantly through the believers to bless others.
For Further Study
Arndt, William F. and Gingrich, F. Wilbur. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Cambridge: The University of Chicago Press, 1957.
Barclay, William. The Gospel of John, Vol. 1. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1956.
Barrett, C. K. The Gospel According to St. John. Philadelphia: The Westminister Press, 1978.
Boer, Harry R. Pentecost and Missions. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1961.
Bruce, F. F. The Book of Acts. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1975.
Brown, Ramond E. The Gospel According to John, Vol. 1. New York: Doubleday, 1966-1970.
Burge, Gary M. The Anointed Community: The Holy Spirit in the Johannine Tradition. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1987.
Cumming, James Elder. Through the Eternal Spirit. Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1965.
Dunn, James D. G. Baptism in the Holy Spirit. London: SCM Press Ltd. 1970.
Dunn, James. D. G. Jesus and the Spirit. London: SCM Press Ltd., 1975.
Fee, Gordon. D. “Once More–John 7:37-39.” Exp Tim 89 (1977-1978):116-118 Godet, Frederick Louis. Commentary on the Gospel of John, Vol. II. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing Company, 1893.
Goppelt. TDNT, Vol 3, ed. Gerhard Kittel. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1972.
Gordon, A. J. The Ministry of the Spirit. Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1964.
Hendriksen, William. New Testament Commentary: Exposition of The Gospel According to John. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1961.
Hull, William E. The Broadman Bible Commentary: Commentary on John. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1970.
Keener, Craig. S. The Gospel of John, Vol. 1. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 2003.
Kuyper, Abraham. The Work of the Holy Spirit. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1900.
Lenski, R. C. H. St. John’s Gospel. Columbus: The Wartburg Press, 1942.
Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to John. Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans, 1971.
Owen, John. The Holy Spirit. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications. 1954.
Rea, John. Bible Handbook on the Holy Spirit. Orlando: Creation House, 1998.
Simpson, A. B. The Holy Spirit, Vol. 2. Harrisburg: Christian Publications, 1896.
Swete, Henry Barclay. The Holy Spirit in the New Testament. London: Macmillan and Company, 1910.
Thomas, W. H. Griffith. The Holy Spirit of God. Grand Rapids: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964.
Wescott, B. F. The Gospel According to St. John. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971.
Copyright © 2004 By George M. Flattery